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Supporting Research

Whole body vibration (WBV) is not a new technology; it has been utilized for over a century and offers a variety of fitness and therapeutic benefits. If you are looking for the science behind your vibration plate or just want to know more about the benefits of vibration therapy, we have you covered. This extensive collection is just a sample of the research done on vibration therapy, summarized in plain language.

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Vibration Training for Muscular Strength
Vibration Therapy and Disease Management
Whole Body Vibration and Weight Loss
Whole Body Vibration and the Endocrine System
Whole Body Vibration and Circulation
Whole Body Vibration and Postural Stability


Vibration Training for Muscular Strength and Development



Study: Impact of whole-body vibration training versus fitness training on muscle strength and muscle mass in older men: a 1-year randomized controlled trial.[1]
Researched By: Division of Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)
Publication Date: June 2007
Methodology: A randomized controlled study where 97 elderly men were placed in one of three groups, either a control, standard fitness, or vibration training group. The data testing their isometric strength, muscle strength and mass were collected before, during, and after the year training and observation trial.
Conclusion: After examining the results, the researchers found that the vibration treated subjects showed statistically significant increases in explosive and isometric muscle strength and mass. Researchers also stated that WBV has the potential to prevent or reverse age-related loss in skeletal muscle mass.
Elite Vibration's Summary: Whole body vibration can increase your strength and muscle mass, even helping you restore vital skeletal support muscles as you age.

Study: Effects of 24 weeks of whole body vibration training on body composition and muscle strength in untrained females.[2]
Researched By: Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics Laboratory, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)
Publication Date: January 2004
Methodology: A randomized controlled study where 48 female subjects were placed into one of three groups: a whole body vibration training group, a traditional fitness group, and a control group. Subjects in both training groups completed three training sessions per week for 24 weeks; the control group did not undergo any sort of training. Body composition, fat mass and strength data were recorded continuously throughout the study.
Conclusion: Researchers determined that whole body vibration training resulted in an increased gain in knee-extensor strength combined with an increase in fat free mass.
Elite Vibration's Summary: Whole body vibration is an effective way of increasing strength and muscle mass without gaining fat; as muscle burns more calories than fat, vibration training is an ideal addition to training for those looking to build healthy muscle mass and burn fat at the same time.

Study: Whole-body vibration training increases muscle strength and mass in older women: a randomized-controlled trial.[3]
Researched By: Institute of Biomedicine, University of León (Spain)
Publication Date: April 2010
Methodology: A randomized controlled study of elderly women (mean age of 77.5 years), measuring for muscle strength and electromyographic activity. 26 subjects were assigned to either an experimental vibration group or a control group. Subjects completed 10 weeks of training, and study data was recorded before and after each session.
Conclusion: Researchers found that participants using the whole body vibration training increased their maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) by nearly 40%, increased thigh muscle mass, and increased subject scores on the Time Up and Go test by 9.0%.
Elite Vibration's Summary: Whole body vibration machines are viable options for anyone looking to prevent muscle loss and can help generate muscle mass in individuals with limited mobility.

Study: The acute effect of whole body vibration on repeated shuttle-running in young soccer players.[4]
Researched By: Collaboration by Italian Olympic Committee (Italy), Tunisian Research Laboratory (Tunisia) and Victory University (Australia)
Publication Date: June 2013
Methodology: A randomized controlled study utilizing randomized crossover study design. Seventeen male soccer players (between sixteen and seventeen years of age) performed three time-assessed tests (RSA1, RSA2, and RSA3), which included sprints, long runs, and other components. Whole body vibration was incorporated into the second test set (RSA2) during recovery periods of the session. Data was collected for best time, worst time, total time, fatigue index score (subjective), and post-test blood lactate levels.
Conclusion: Researchers found that subjects total time for the test session was significantly lower when subject used whole body vibration. In addition, the players worst times after vibration training were lower than their worst time without, and players reported far less fatigue (30-40% less).
Elite Vibration's Summary: Speed and recovery are two of the most important variables for sports like soccer. Whole body vibration allows you to get the same benefits as a traditional workout even while it reduces fatigue and soreness.

Study: Chronic effects of whole-body vibration on jumping performance and body balance using different frequencies and amplitudes with identical acceleration load.[5]
Researched By: National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei (Taiwan)
Publication Date: March 2013
Methodology: This study was conducted as an eight-week randomized controlled clinical trial. Fifty test subjects were placed in one of three groups: group using high-frequency vibration training, a group using low-frequency vibration, or a control group performing no training. Participants trained three days per week and data was collected before and after each training session.
Conclusion: Researchers found both vibration training groups experienced increased jump height and power. Additionally, the low-frequency group experienced increased activation of the rectus femoris (the center-most quadricep muscle) in their counter movement jump.
Elite Vibration's Summary: This study shows the power of whole body vibration to increase muscle activation, static muscle strength and explosive power. These three results are vital for increasing overall muscle performance, athletic performance and total well-being. [Back to Top]


Vibration Therapy and Disease Management



Study: The effect of whole body vibration exposure on muscle function in children with cystic fibrosis: a pilot efficacy trial. [6]
Researched By: Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney (Australia)
Publication Date: April 2013
Methodology: A 12 week, home-based randomized controlled study. Six children with cystic fibrosis (ages 8 - 15 years) completed the trial, which comprised of a four week baseline period, a four week period of parentally-supervised whole vibration therapy, and a final four week period of standard (baseline) care. Data was collected at weeks 4, 8 and 12 (the conclusion of each period) for absolute and relative strength and flexibility. Researchers also recorded data regarding subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, and health-related quality of life.
Conclusion: The study found that, during the four-week vibration therapy period, subjects improved their leg extension scores, leg press strength and their counter movement jump (CMJ) height. Researchers concluded that vibration therapy would be an effective modality to safely increase leg strength and power in children with CF.
Elite Vibration's Summary: Cystic fibrosis causes muscle loss and disability. Whole body vibration's positive effect on muscle strength and explosive (movement) power show that it can be a powerful, effective way to help alleviate CF symptoms and improve quality of life.

Study: Effects of whole-body vibration training on physical function in patients with multiple sclerosis.[7]
Researched By: Division of Sport Science, Universität Konstanz (Germany)
Publication Date: 2013
Methodology: The study was conducted as a randomized controlled clinical trial. Sixty subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS) were assigned to two groups. The intervention group performed isometric (static) squats on a vibration platform set to an amplitude of 1 to 2mm. The control group completed the same set of exercises standing on the platform but with the vibration turned off. Subjects completed three session per week for three weeks. Data was recorded at baseline, conclusion and follow-up.
Conclusion: At the trial's conclusion, researchers found the intervention (vibration) group showed significantly greater improvement in the 6-minute walk test.
Elite Vibration's Summary: Multiple sclerosis treatment tends to focus on the alleviation of symptoms and the general improvement of muscle use. Whole body vibration offers a short workout time (the study only used 3-60 second squats per session) with the potential for huge improvements to everyday life.

Study: Efficiency of vibration exercise for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients.[8]
Researched By: Institut für Physiologie und Anatomie, Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln (Germany)
Publication Date: 2007
Methodology: A twelve-week randomized controlled clinical trial. Forty subjects were placed in one of three groups: a flexibility training group, a strength training group and a vibration training group. Each group completed three days per week of training over the course of the study. Training volume and intensity were increased after weeks 6 and 9. Researchers collected data before and after the training period, as well as prior to each training session.
Conclusion: The vibration therapy group showed statistically significant improvement in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and at the study conclusion showed a 4% reduction in HbA1c levels.
Elite Vibration's Summary: The primary method of diabetes control is to regulate blood glucose levels. This study shows that vibration therapy can help type 2 diabetics manage their glucose tolerance and HbA1c levels more effectively than with traditional strength or flexibility training.

Study: The effects of random whole-body-vibration on motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.[9]
Researched By: Institute of Sport Sciences, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University (Germany)
Publication Date: 2006
Methodology: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Sixty-eight (68) subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD) were placed into two groups: one experimental group and one control group. The experimental group subjects participated in five whole body vibration sessions, made up of different variations of intensities. Study data was collected before and after each session.
Conclusion: Researchers found a highly significant improvement of 16.8% on the test group's UPDRS motor scores. Tremor and rigidity were improve by 25% and 24% respectively.
Elite Vibration's Summary: A 25% reduction of any symptom related to Parkinson's disease is a dramatic improvement to the patient's quality of life. Vibration therapy allows full body stimulation and can bring improvement to a wide variety of symptoms.

Study: Changes in body balance and functional performance following whole-body vibration training in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.[10]
Researched By: University of Seville, Sevilla (Spain)
Publication Date: July 2013
Methodology: An 8-week randomized controlled clinical trial. Forty-six (46) subjects with fibromyalgia were placed in one of three groups: a group that combined vibration and traditional training, a traditional training group and a standard care (control group).
Conclusion: The study found that the whole body vibration group show significant improvement in Medio-Lateral Stability Index and Medio-Lateral Mean deflection scores.
Elite Vibration's Summary: Fibromyalgia can result in a loss of function and balance in addition to crippling pain. Utilizing whole body vibration, users can not only increase their stability, but they are able to increase circulation and assist other symptoms at the same time. [Back to Top]


Whole Body Vibration and Weight Loss



Study: Effect of long-term whole body vibration training on visceral adipose tissue: a preliminary report. [11]
Researched By: Department of Health Sciences - Physiotherapy, University College of Antwerp (Belgium)
Publication Date: April 2010
Methodology: A randomized controlled study with a 6-month intervention period and a 6-month no-intervention follow-up. Sixty-one (61) obese individuals were placed in one of four groups: a control group, a diet only group, a group that combined fitness with diet and group that combined diet with whole body vibration (WBV) therapy. Study data was collected at baseline, three months, six months and twelve months.
Conclusion: Researchers found that the vibration training group had maintained a weight loss of greater than 5%. In addition, the vibration group saw the largest reduction in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), averaging 44cm2.
Elite Vibration's Summary: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is the belly fat that creeps between the organs and into the stomach cavity. It has been casually related to insulin resistance and secretes leptin, which causes further weight gain. Whole body vibration training can help users lose dangerous body fat and prevent future insulin resistance with just a few short sessions a week.

Study: Influence of vibration training on energy expenditure in active men.[12]
Researched By: School of Medicine, University of Cordóba (Spain)
Publication Date: May 2007
Methodology: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Seventeen male university students (18 years of age) carried out two training exercises in a random order: the half squat (HS) and the half squat with vibration (HSV). Data was recorded at baseline, during exercise and during short-term recovery.
Conclusion: Researchers found that the HSV group had significantly higher energy expenditure and perceived exertion. The study concluded that the addition of vibration made strength training more effective.
Elite Vibration's Summary: The body utilizes energy in the form of calories; a greater energy expenditure means that whole body vibration training allows you to burn more calories than with traditional exercise alone. Greater calorie burn means greater weight loss potential.

Study: Local metabolic rate during whole body vibration.[13]
Researched By: Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary (Canada)
Publication Date: May 2013
Methodology: A randomized controlled clinical trial designed to test the metabolic rate of two lower-extremity muscles during WBV under different vibration parameters. Fourteen male subjects were randomly exposed to a vibration plate operating at 0 (control)-, 10-, 17-, or 28-Hz. Metabolic rates of both muscle were recorded during throughout the study.
Conclusion: Researchers found statistically significant increases in metabolic expenditure at each level (as compared to the control group). The study also noted that metabolic rate increased with frequency.
Elite Vibration's Summary: While this study specifically focused on two muscles, increased metabolic rate means a greater calorie burn for all muscles activated during whole body vibration training. A greater calorie burn can translate to significantly greater weight loss over time. [Back to Top]


Whole Body Vibration and the Endocrine System



Study: Effects of whole-body vibration exercise on the endocrine system of healthy men.[14]
Researched By: Section of Internal Medicine and Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences (IMISEM), University of Perugia (Italy)
Publication Date: April 2004
Methodology: A randomized controlled study where 10 healthy men were asked to stand for 25 minutes either on a standard ground plate (no vibration) or a vibration plate oscillating at 30 Hz. Data regarding their endocrine outputs was recorded both before and after the trials.
Conclusion: After examining each volunteer, the researchers found that those who utilized whole body vibration had a statistically significant reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in the catecholamine, norepinephrine. This illustrates that vibration therapy would be a viable option for those who would need to utilize glucose concentration for muscle contraction, specifically for those suffering from diabetes and other endocrine conditions.
Elite Vibration's Summary: It is possible that this study indicates that due to the lowering of blood sugar levels, these machines can lead to weight loss, as well as the hormonal response possibly leading to improved mood, energy level, and metabolism rate.

Study: Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men.[15]
Researched By: Societa Stampa Sportiva, Rome (Italy)
Publication Date: April 2000
Methodology: A randomized controlled study where 14 male test subjects were administered with 10 cycles of 60 second vibration plate exercises, with 60 seconds of rest between the sets. Several tests were use to analyze the results both before and after the sessions, tests which measure neuromuscular performance, average velocity, force, acceleration and power of various appendages (both legs and arms).
Conclusion: After examining the results, the researchers found that the vibration treated subjects showed statistically significant increases in testosterone and growth hormone, as well increases in mechanical power in the legs and neuromuscular ability.
Elite Vibration's Summary: Muscle building is governed mainly by the activation and release of growth hormone and testosterone, so if you are able to increase the levels of these two hormones, as seen in the results of this study, then naturally building and strengthening muscle will be an easier and quicker process. This can clearly be seen by how these platforms have also shown to increase mechanical power in the legs, probably in large part due to the increase blood hormone levels. [Back to Top]


Whole Body Vibration and Circulation



Study: Whole body vibration training improves leg blood flow and adiposity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.[16]
Researched By: Physical Education and Sports Department, University of Seville (Spain)
Publication Date: May 2013
Methodology: A randomized controlled study where 40 individuals were randomized into either a vibration platform group or a control group. The data for this studies was examined over a 12 week period.
Conclusion: Researchers found that those who underwent vibration training and statistically significant increases in leg blood blow, as well as increased blood flow across the entire body. They also had improved body dimensions after the 12 weeks in reference to their body fat, waist line, and weight.
Elite Vibration's Summary: By increasing your blood flow, you are potentially protecting yourself from a number of health issues. A number of health risks are caused by poor circulation, such as muscle pain, fat deposits, artery clogging, kidney and organ failure, and other vascular conditions. So by increasing your blood blow and thus improving circulation, you may be able to prevent any of these ailments from occurring.

Study: The effect of whole body vibration on lower extremity skin blood flow in normal subjects.[17]
Researched By: Loma Linda University, California (United States)
Publication Date: February 2007
Methodology: A randomized controlled study where 45 subjects between the ages of 18-43 were assigned them into one of three groups, either utilizing both vibration machines and conventional exercise, using only standard fitness methods, or both.
Conclusion: After examining the subjects within the groups, the researchers found that those within the vibration group had statistically significant increases of SBF in comparison to the other groups.
Elite Vibration's Summary: The study showed that the individuals showed increased levels of blood flow, which means that a person will receive the various vitamins and nutrients they require much quicker, thus contributing to an overall healthier lifestyle.

Study: Effects of whole-body vibration exercise training on aortic wave reflection and muscle strength in postmenopausal women with prehypertension and hypertension.[18]
Researched By: Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University (United States)
Publication Date: July 2013
Methodology: A randomized controlled study where 28 postmenopausal women where they were placed in six weeks of either a training group using vibration machines or a control group.
Conclusion: Researchers found that the group that utilized whole body vibration showed increased muscle strength, as well as statistically significant decreases in all factors of hypertension, which include systolic, diastolic and aortic blood pressure, as well as other components.
Elite Vibration's Summary: Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure, which is when a large amount and force of blood is pushed against artery walls. What makes this condition dangerous is that it overwork the heart by forcing it to pump continuously, thus straining it and clogging arteries. Usging a proven method like whole body vibration to get this condition under control is not only a good health option with regards to fitness conditioning, but is a necessity in preventing and controlling high blood pressure. [Back to Top]


Whole Body Vibration and Postural Stability



Study: The effects of whole body vibration on bone mineral density for a person with a spinal cord injury: a case study.[19]
Researched By: Kinesiology Department, Texas Woman’s University (United States)
Publication Date: January 2010
Methodology: A randomized controlled study where individuals were placed in one of three groups, either those standing only, standing partially, are standing while placed atop a vibration platform.
Conclusion: Researchers found that those in the vibration group were the only phases of activity that showed statistically significant increases in BMD (bone mineral density) in the trunk and spine. It also showed to decrease their total body fat content.
Elite Vibration's Summary: For anyone with some sort of physical limitations in their spines from injury, aging, or bone illness, vibration machines may allow you to conquer and eliminate this pain, specifically in the trunk of the spine. This may allow to you to return to normal physical activity levels without having to worry about the strain on your back.

Study: Controlled whole body vibration to decrease fall risk and improve health-related quality of life of nursing home residents.[20]
Researched By: WHO Collaborating Center for Public Health Aspects of Osteoarticular Disorders (Belgium)
Publication Date: February 2005
Methodology: A randomized controlled study where 42 elderly women were administered vibration training at intensities and duration that varied as time passed. The data for this studies was examined over a 3 month period, where the women exercised at the differing intensities and times three times a week.
Conclusion: After 6 weeks of examining subjects by pairing them into groups of either using vibration machines or using standard exercise methods, the results showed that those who utilized whole body vibration showed a significant improvement in body balance, stability, and directional control.
Elite Vibration's Summary: By increasing their stability and structural control, these elderly women and anyone suffering from physical limitations like this may be able have their movement and physical activity levels back to normal because they have strengthened their fundamental muscles and components.

Study: Short-term effects of whole-body vibration on postural control in unilateral chronic stroke patients: preliminary evidence.[21]
Researched By: Sint Maartenskliniek Research Lab (Netherlands)
Publication Date: November 2004
Methodology: A randomized controlled study where 23 chronic stroke victims were asked to stand on vibrating platforms where the plates were oscillating at 30 Hz with an amplitude of 3mm for 45 seconds. They were asked to complete four cycles of this exercise, where their vitals and other data were collected before and after each cycle.
Conclusion: Researchers found that vibration therapy decreased pressure on their joints while they walk or move forward, as well as improved their weight shifting ability.
Elite Vibration's Summary: The study showed that with whole body vibration, stroke victims or individuals who have had trauma that limits them physically can better their health and overall lifestyle. They can complete tasks that requirement movement or lifting without difficulty.

Study: High-frequency whole-body vibration improves balancing ability in elderly women.[22]
Researched By: Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Chinese University (China)
Publication Date: July 2007
Methodology: A randomized controlled study where 69 elderly women, ages 60 and above, were placed in either a control group or experimental vibration training group. These women were condition three times a week for 3 months.
Conclusion: Researchers found that the vibration treated subjects had significant improvement in the various parameters of balance.
Elite Vibration's Summary: For the elderly population, standard fitness activities such as conventional weight machines and equipment prove too difficult for them to use, because of different physical limitations, so an activity that they can condition with and not have to worry about adverse side effects seems like a perfect option.

Study: A comparative study of whole body vibration training and conventional training on knee proprioception and postural stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.[23]
Researched By: School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University (Iran)
Publication Date: May 2008
Methodology: A randomized controlled study where 20 athletes who had ACL reconstructive surgery underwent either vibration or conventional training methods.
Conclusion: After examining the results, the researchers found that the athletes who underwent whole body vibration methods showed greater increases in knee extension, improved stability in each of the muscles surrounding and innervating the knee, and a vast progression in proprioception.
Elite Vibration's Summary: For athletes or for anyone who has ever had a serious injury and required surgery such as ACL reconstruction, vibration machines offer an effective means of treatment and strengthening.

Study: Effect of whole-body vibration exercise on mobility, balance ability and general health status in frail elderly patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.[24]
Researched By: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital (China)
Publication Date: July 2013
Methodology: A randomized controlled study where 44 elderly individuals underwent went an eight week training regiment where they were either played in a group solely using vibration machines for exercise, or to a group using standard fitness equipment and exercises. The results were recorded in the form of a number of test that gauge and measure that person’s fitness and flexibility level.
Conclusion: Researchers found that whole body vibration showed statistically significant increases in leg strength, postural stability, and reaction time.
Elite Vibration's Summary: As you age, deterioration of bone and muscle mass is a normal occurrence, however restoring that mass is not an easy thing to do because you are unable to do intensive exercises because of that lacking. Vibration platform machines offer you an opportunity to efficiently increase postural control, balance, flexibility, and overall strength without the side effects or injury. [Back to Top]



References

1. Impact of whole-body vibration training versus fitness training on muscle strength and muscle mass in older men: a 1-year randomized controlled trial. Bogaerts, A et al. Division of Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). 2007.
2. Effects of 24 weeks of whole body vibration training on body composition and muscle strength in untrained females. Roelants, M et al. Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics Laboratory, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). 2004.
3. Whole-body vibration training increases muscle strength and mass in older women: a randomized-controlled trial. Machado, A et al. Institute of Biomedicine, University of León (Spain). 2004.
4. The acute effect of whole body vibration on repeated shuttle-running in young soccer players. Padulo, J. et al. Collaboration by Italian Olympic Committee (Italy), Tunisian Research Laboratory (Tunisia) and Victory University (Australia). 2013 Jun 18.
5. Chronic effects of whole-body vibration on jumping performance and body balance using different frequencies and amplitudes with identical acceleration load. Chen CH. et al. National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei (Taiwan). 2013 Mar 22.
6. The effect of whole body vibration exposure on muscle function in children with cystic fibrosis: a pilot efficacy trial. O'Keefe, K. et al. Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney (Australia). 2013 Apr 23.
7. Effects of whole-body vibration training on physical function in patients with multiple sclerosis. Hilgers, C. et al. Division of Sport Science, Universität Konstanz (Germany). 2013.
8. Efficiency of vibration exercise for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Baum K, Votteler T, Schiab J. Institut für Physiologie und Anatomie, Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln (Germany). 2007.
9. The effects of random whole-body-vibration on motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Haas CT, Turbanski S, Schmidtbleicher D. Institute of Sport Sciences, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University (Germany). 2006.
10. Changes in body balance and functional performance following whole-body vibration training in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Sañudo B, Carrasco L, de Hoyo M, Oliva-Pascual-Vaca Á, Rodríguez-Blanco C. University of Seville, Sevilla (Spain). 2013 Jul.
11. Effect of long-term whole body vibration training on visceral adipose tissue: a preliminary report. Vissers D, et al. Department of Health Sciences - Physiotherapy, University College of Antwerp (Belgium). 2010.
12. Influence of vibration training on energy expenditure in active men. Da Silva ME, et al. School of Medicine, University of Cordóba (Spain). 2007.
13. Local metabolic rate during whole body vibration. Friesenbichler B, Nigg BM, Dunn JF. Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary (Canada). 2013.
14. Effects of whole-body vibration exercise on the endocrine system of healthy men. Di Loreto C, et al. Section of Internal Medicine and Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences (IMISEM), University of Perugia (Italy). 2013.
15. Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men. Bosco C, et al. Societa Stampa Sportiva, Rome (Italy). 2000.
16. Whole body vibration training improves leg blood flow and adiposity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sañudo B, et al. Physical Education and Sports Department, University of Seville (Spain). 2013 May 9.
17. The effect of whole body vibration on lower extremity skin blood flow in normal subjects. Lohman EB 3rd, Petrofsky JS, Maloney-Hinds C, Betts-Schwab H, Thorpe D. Department of Physical Therapy, Loma Linda University (United States). 2007 Feb.
18. Effects of whole-body vibration exercise training on aortic wave reflection and muscle strength in postmenopausal women with prehypertension and hypertension. Figueroa A, Kalfon R, Madzima TA, Wong A. Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University (United States). 2013 Jul 4.
19. The effects of whole body vibration on bone mineral density for a person with a spinal cord injury: a case study. Davis R, Sanborn C, Nichols D, Bazett-Jones DM, Dugan EL. Kinesiology Department at Texas Woman's University, Texas (United States). 2010 Jan.
20. Controlled whole body vibration to decrease fall risk and improve health-related quality of life of nursing home residents. Bruyere O, Wuidart MA, Di Palma E, Gourlay M, Ethgen O, Richy F, Reginster JY. WHO Collaborating Center for Public Health Aspects of Osteoarticular Disorders (Belgium). 2005 Feb.
21. Short-term effects of whole-body vibration on postural control in unilateral chronic stroke patients: preliminary evidence. van Nes IJ, Geurts AC, Hendricks HT, Duysens J. Sint Maartenskliniek Research, Nijmegen (Netherlands). 2004 Nov.
22. High-frequency whole-body vibration improves balancing ability in elderly women. Cheung WH, Mok HW, Qin L, Sze PC, Lee KM, Leung KS. Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Chinese University of Hong Kong (China). 2007 Jul.
23. A comparative study of whole body vibration training and conventional training on knee proprioception and postural stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Moezy A, Olyaei G, Hadian M, Razi M, Faghihzadeh S. School of Rehabilitation, Tehran University (Tehran). 2008 May.
24. Effect of whole-body vibration exercise on mobility, balance ability and general health status in frail elderly patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Zhang L, Weng C, Liu M, Wang Q, Liu L, He Y. Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Nan Lou of Chinese PLA General Hospital (China). 2013 Jul 17.